Experts point out that diseases increase in winter months and measures should be taken against diseases. As they addressed the importance of eating right in the season, they also stated that eating not right or clothing not seasonally have great contribution in getting sick in winter months as well as the effect of cold air.
Then what is the situation for the fishes? As we cannot clothe the fishes seasonally then what should we be aware of?
As fishes are cold blooded animals they are affected directly from the conditions of their environment. Abrupt changes of environmental conditions in winter causes stress in fishes. Stress most apparently impairs the immunity system of the fishes and causes them to loose resistance and become prone to diseases.
For the minimum effect of these adverse weather conditions on fishes, feeds that have high digestible content and that are supported with additives to support digestion have great importance. Immune system stimulants used in the feeds, beta glucans, nucleotides, prebiotics, etc.
Their mechanism of action is briefly as follows:
Beta glucans exist in mushrooms and yeast. They bind to macrophages and activate them and active macrophages excrete cytokines (signal molecules). These signal molecules active other macrophages and lymphocytes and prevent the growth of pathogen bacterias by attacking them in case of infection.
Prebiotics prevent the colonization of pathogens in the digestive system by inhibiting them, and as a nutrition source for the useful intestine bacteria, they assist the digestive system microflora in maintaining its healthy balance.
Nucleotides are essential for nucleic acid synthesis and they are the building blocks of DNA and RNA. They are important for reproduction, growth and continuation of vitality. They can be synthesized in the body but as they will be insufficient in babies and in disease conditions, they should be supported with feed.