Throughout history, civilizations are usually established near water sources. They struggled to have and control these economically valuable sources by trying to find various aquaculture fishing and production ways and established big civilizations by pushing their hegemonies through.
Design, production and usage of the fishing tackles, exemplify to the oldest technologies of humanity. In the later paleolithic age, after pleistocene epoch, residuals such as fisher spears, hooks, fishing lines and sinkers are found. 8 thousands of years ago, people who live in the north of Iberia peninsula go fishing ashore in the seasons when there are many fish around and they go fishing upcountry in other seasons. Moreover, it is known that; Phoenicians and Carthaginians made offshore fishery and carried the butterfly fillets from West Mediterranean to Greece by being able to hide these fillets in suitable places.
Besides fishing, aquaculture is also one of the first exertions of humanity. It firstly began in canals and ponds with the aim of watering agricultural lands in countries which are located in the east and the south side of the world. In the sequel, aquaculture started to be made in tailored ponds.
Turkey, has a surface area about 8333 km seashore, 178,000 km of river water product that can be used as a production area, 200 hectares with over 200 natural lakes and reservoirs across 3442 square kilometers .
The production potential can not be evaluated sufficiently because of various reasons. Our sea and inland vessels are rich sources in the sense that they have suitable ecological qualities for fishing and breeding of the cold and hot fish types.
Fish types are as follows;
- Nearly 240 in the Black Sea Region,
- Nearly 200 in the Sea Of Marmara,
- Nearly 300 in the Aegean Sea,
- Nearly 500 in the Mediterranean Sea
Nevertheless, the number of sea food types which are economically valuable is about 100. When considering hunting fish in Turkey, nearly 74% of them are being hunted from the Black Sea Region and nearly 15% of them are being hunted from the Sea of Marmara. 65- 70% of these hunting fish are composed from anchovies. A serious decrease is seen in the stock of Black Sea anchovy. This situation necessitated precautions to be taken in hunting. Inspite of the fact that, an increase in production is observed, the continuity of it couldn’ t be provided.
The Sea Reserves are the places in which the subversive usage and activities are banned, the humanistic pressures are removed or minimized and natural improvement for the ecosystems are provided. A rapid increase is seen in fertility, diversity and productivity especially for the facing extinction types which massive changes are being made in the places where the Sea Reserves are inducted.
Protecting natural sources, means protecting the variety and luxuriancy in the world. Protection of the types means protecting them in their natural environment by observing their interspecific complex interactions which forms ecosystem.